Role of Design in Society
Role of Design in Society: Design For a Better World.
All the design decisions have environmental, social and ethical impacts in the world. Designers have social and ecological responsibility as design has strong impact for users. I am writing this post to introduce the concept and good cases of inclusive and sustainable design for a better world. Here is an index of the post below.
The post is divided into 3 main parts: understand the design background, observe the problem and define how it should be.
1. Background: Undertand the background
The word 'design' encompasses a lot of meanings. Design activity is all about human being including their behaviour and quality of life. ICSID (International Council of Societies of Industrial Design) states that design is one kind of creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life cycles. Therefore, design is the central factor of innovative humanisation of technologies and the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange. Design is everywhere.
Victor Papanek was one of the most controversial and influential figure in the history of sustainable design. Victor Papanek said that designers and creative professionals have a responsibility and are able to cause real change in the world through good design. He also mentioned that designer should advocate designs with social and ecological responsibilities. He pointed out that "design has become the most powerful tool with which man shapes his tools and environments (and, by extension, society and himself)". Every design project we undertake will result in products, environments, interfaces, or services that will ultimately have an effect on people's lives.
(Source: Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change, Victor Papanek)
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the world. Since the Industrial Revolution, design is controlled by management policy of capitalism aiming for profit.
After industrial revolution, design has taken role of a resource that create profits and value-added out of products and service. A great portion of design in modern times occupies a major spot in marketing strategy for successful business, and it is being manufactured only for the wealthy without considering the users who really is in need. Designers design for a profit and companies exist for a profit.
The ultimate goal of design is to create prosperity in human lives. Creating prosperity in the long and short term for human being. It is also applicable for people from different background including disabled, elderly, etc and environments where we live in. Good design begins with the user's need. No design, no matter how beautiful and ingenious, is any good if it doesn't fulfill user's need. Good design is sustainable and inclusive.
3.1. Sustainable Design
3.1.1. S-Oil, "HERE" campaign to save oil
The challenge: S-Oil wanted to show it had a mission: to save oil. They knew South Korea's capital had some of the highest gasoline consumption in the world. What's more, car use was increasing, petrol costs rising, and parking spaces scarce. Every day, a Seoul driver has to drive around for approximately 500m to find a space. Over a month, this comes to 15km of driving. People were using around a liter of gas just trying to park.
The idea: What if we could tell people there was a parking space right here? With HERE balloons, S-Oil did exactly that. They set up a bright yellow balloon in each space. The balloon falls when a car parks in the space, and rises again when the car leaves. Drivers could see the colourful balloons from far away and spot empty spaces. Quick parking means saving time and saving oil. That means happier drivers and a healthier planet.
Audience Engagement: The campaign certainly helped drivers to save oil. In just one day, 700 cars used 23 liters less oil. Over a whole year, they saved much more. S-Oil engaged with people: now they knew it was a company that cared about saving oil. They even put the balloons on their own gas stations. People now thought about cutting gas costs when they thought about S-Oil.
3.1.2. Kenzo, eco-packaging
Kenzo Parfums received the 2010 Eco-Emballages eco-packaging award for the environmentally-friendly refills created for the iconic FlowerByKenzo fragrance. Awards are given to two companies each year to recognize initiatives to reduce packaging waste. Kenzo Parfums earned praise for two concepts that let consumers keep and use their fragrance bottles longer.
There are two options: a permanent refill fountain at all points of sale, and a refill packet that customers can take home. The minimalist packet is designed simply to hold the fragrance. These refills reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 66% percent compared with the glass bottle, giving Kenzo another opportunity to demonstrate that nature figures at the core of its identity.
3.1.3. FREITAG, recycled individual products
In 1993, the two graphic designers Markus and Daniel Freitag were looking for a functional, water-repellent and robust bag to hold their drawings. Inspired by the multicolored heavy traffic that rumbled through the Zurich transit intersection in front of their flat, they developed a messenger bag from used truck tarpaulins, discarded bicycle inner tubes and car seatbelts. This is how the first FREITAG bags took shape in the living room of their shared apartment – each one recycled, each one a unique item.
19 CONTAINERS, 26 METERS, The FREITAG Flagshipstore Zurich is completely built from rusty, recycled freight-containers.
3.1.4. MotoArt: furniture made from vintage airplane parts.
With 12,000 airplanes slated to retire by 2020, says the Aircraft Fleet Recycling Association (AFRA), the process of recycling can be quite expensive, with dismantling being a labor-intensive effort that takes up to four weeks to complete. Of course, there's more than one way to recycle a jet, with companies like California-based furniture maker MotoArt (whom we've previously featured for their recycled bomb tables), focusing on creating polished, durable pieces -- all made from salvaged aviation parts.
Using parts like rudders, nacelles and fuselages, MotoArt has been transforming these pieces of what they aptly call "aviation history" into works of functional art for the last 12 years. To get an idea of what it looks like, check out this CNN video offering a glimpse into their creative process -- which sometimes includes over a hundred hours of sanding!
C-119 Airplane Rudder Desk
Known as “The Flying Boxcar” the C-119 was used as a cargo plane was built between 1947 and 1955, originally replacing the C-82 “Packet”. Deployed during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the C-119 began as a troop and cargo hauler, it was later fitted with weapons of war. The AC-119G “Shadow” sported infra- red instrumentation, armor plating, fire launchers and mini-guns. The Shadow was later upgraded to the AC-119K “Stinger” and was outfitted with turbo-jet engines.
Radical Engine Piston Lamps
What once torqued the engine of a 1940's Jacobs Radial is now available in desk lamp. Designed with an authentic Jacobs piston and a UL listed LED adjustable gooseneck lamp, this lamp will shine for 100,000 hours without needing to be replaced. Also Available are the Architects Spring Arm Lamps with halogen lighting.
3.2. Inclusive Design
3.2.1. The Bradley Timepiece by eone: To see and touch. An innovative fashion watch that everyone, including the blind can touch to tell time.
They believe in universal, inclusive design: designing for extremes of ability and disability to create superior products and services. The Bradley was in this way with equal consideration for both sighted and visually impaired users giving it unique function and versatility. Universal design (often inclusive design) refers to broad-spectrum ideas meant to produce buildings, products and environments that are inherently accessible to older people, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities. Inclusive design refers to broad-spectrum ideas meant. Universal design, often inclusive design, p
Telling time shouldn't require vision. The Bradley Timepiece is designed for everyone. Timepiece allows you to check the time in a dark movie theatre without having to illuminate your smartphone. Created in collaboration with product designers, engineers, and people with vision loss, The bradley changes the way we interact with our timepieces. The story of The Bradley Timepiece starts with really simple question: what time is it? The inquiry came from a blind student seated next to Kim during a graduate course at the school. Kim's friend wore a wrist watch that spoke the time aloud at the press of a button, but he felt that using the audible feature in public was disruptive and, frankly, embarrassing.
"When you include the extremes of everybody, that is to say differently abled people of all sorts, then you produce things that are better for all of us." - MICHAEL WOLF (Wolff Olins)
3.2.2. Braun Bell Concept Mug for Blind by Sang-hoon Lee & Yong-bum Lim: No More Overspills Even If You Are Blind - Braun Bell Concept Mug for Blind
为了Sang-hoo Lee和Yong-bum Lim设计的即使是视障者使用也不会满到溢出水的杯子，Braun Bell
You would never think how many daily tasks become difficult for a blind person. The Braun Bell concept mug is an idea that assists a blind person with pouring a cup of tea or coffee (or any drink, for that matter). The Braun Bell concept mug helps keep track of how much liquid is in the cup using sensor technology. You simply hold down the desired amount of liquid you want using the Braille buttons on the handle, and the cup will notify you (voice speaker) when the liquid has reached that point.
3.2.3. Can Good Graphic Design Help The Homeless?
A new project in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, is trying to find out. A collaboration between artist Kenji Nakayama and Chirstopher Hope, the Signs for the Homeless project exchanges handwritten panhandling signs for colorfully illustrated, eye-catching recreations that aim to give the homeless a power that most of us take for granted: The power to be noticed.Many homeless signs don’t ask for money or food at all. Instead, they are works of self-expression: Statements by a human being about the world they live in. Hope points out, many homeless signs don’t ask for money or food at all. Instead, they are works of self-expression: Statements by a human being about the world they live in. "Many are not using their signs to make money at all. They’re using them as a voice, to reach out." Hope says good design helps you see the world in a different way. Design is a powerful force that can help overpower people’s preconceptions and attract us to the very things we were once repelled by. Good design can’t in itself help the lives of the homeless, but it can help give the homeless back their voice and humanity.
3.2.4. Blind Adpater by Ching-Tzu Tsai & Xien-An Chen: Blind Adapter - Magnetic Adapter for Sockets
盲人易用的磁力吸式插头——Blind Adpater， Ching-Tzu Tsai & Xien-An Chen
The extension is designed to fit with existing electrical outlets and has an annular magnetic electrode so that the plug stays fixed onto the socket. Convenient Braille tags allow one to identify the appliance being plugged in, just to be double sure! Blind Adapter is a 2014 iF Design Concept entry.
3.2.5. Feelor colored pencils
This is intended for preschoolers with vision disabilities, but we can't see why they wouldn't work for sighted children, too. The comfort-grip, refillable pencils are subtly differentiated from one another by an extruded figure -- meant to represent that pencil's color -- on each end. Blind children can learn that the clover shape means green, and that the apple shape means red. Forming associations of abstract concepts like color with real-world examples solidifies the differences between them for children with vision problems, but can also help sighted children learn their RGBs in a new way.
3.2.6. Design for the other 90%
The author of Design for Social Responsibility states that social responsibility has been a recurring issue in design profession for so many years. Since the 1960s several more or less commercial approaches have evolved. In the 1970s designers were encouraged to abandon 'design for profit' in favour of a more compassionate approach inspired by Victor Papanek. In the 1980s and 1990s profit and ethical issues were no longer considered mutually exclusive and more market-oriented concepts emerged, such as the 'green consumer' and ethical investment. The purchase of socially responsible, 'ethical' products and services has been stimulated by the dissemination of research into sustainability issues in consumer publications. Accessibility and inclusivity have also attracted a great deal of design interest and recently designers have turned to solving social and crime-related problems.
“The designer's job is to imagine the world not how it is, but how it should be.” - Terence Conran
If we think design as a way to make the world better, it is a lot wider. Design is all about enhancing things and expanding their capability for a better world. Design can bring real changes as all the design decisions have environmental, social and ethical impacts. I believe in the power of inclusive and sustainable design. Thank you for reading.
Design for Social Responsibility（《为社会责任设计》）的作者指出，社会责任已经多年成为在设计行业中反复出现的一个问题。从1960年代开始，或多或少商业方法在进化中。在1970年代，在Victor Papanek的影响下，设计师逐渐开始放弃“为利润设计”的理念，转而使用更富有同情心的方式来设计。在上世纪80和90年代，利润和道德问题不再被认为是互相排斥的，更多市场导向的理念被融合进设计理念中，例如“绿色消费”和“道德投资”概念。消费者更加愿意为社会责任买单，因为“道德”的产品和服务受到舆论对于可持续性问题的正面激励。可达性和包容性，也引起人们极大的兴趣，设计师最近开始更多地转向与解决社会和犯罪相关的问题。
1. Victor Papanek, Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change
6. Hyungsoo Kim, http://www.eone-time.com
7. Sanghoon Lee & Youngbum Lim, http://www.trendhunter.com/trends/braun-bell-concept-mug
8. Kenji Nakayama and Chirstopher Hope, http://www.fastcodesign.com/1673225/can-good-graphic-design-help-the-homeless#1
9. Ching-Tzu Tsai & Xien-An Chen, http://www.yankodesign.com/2014/04/02/another-adapter-for-the-blind
12. Professor Rachel Cooper, Design for Social Responsibility