Role of Design in Society

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Role of Design in Society: Design For a Better World.

设计的社会角色:为了更美好的世界

All the design decisions have environmental, social and ethical impacts in the world. Designers have social and ecological responsibility as design has strong impact for users. I am writing this post to introduce the concept and good cases of inclusive and sustainable design for a better world. Here is an index of the post below.

所有的设计决策都将对环境、社会和道德伦理产生影响。所以,设计师们也担负着为用户造成社会或生态影响的责任。写这篇文章,主要介绍“为更美好的世界做包容性和可持续性设计”的理念。下图是文章的三个重点和面向:背景,问题,洞察。

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The post is divided into 3 main parts: understand the design background, observe the problem and define how it should be.

1. Background: Undertand the background

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The word 'design' encompasses a lot of meanings. Design activity is all about human being including their behaviour and quality of life. ICSID (International Council of Societies of Industrial Design) states that design is one kind of creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life cycles. Therefore, design is the central factor of innovative humanisation of technologies and the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange. Design is everywhere.

背景

“设计”这个词包含了非常丰富的意义。设计活动可以一直衍伸到人类的行为了生活的品质。ICSID(国际工业设计协会理事会)定义设计为“一种目的为建立多面向的对象,过程,服务以及它们整个生命周期系统的创造性活动”。因此,设计是创新技术人性化以及经济文化交流的一个关键要素。设计无处不在。

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Victor Papanek was one of the most controversial and influential figure in the history of sustainable design. Victor Papanek said that designers and creative professionals have a responsibility and are able to cause real change in the world through good design. He also mentioned that designer should advocate designs with social and ecological responsibilities. He pointed out that "design has become the most powerful tool with which man shapes his tools and environments (and, by extension, society and himself)". Every design project we undertake will result in products, environments, interfaces, or services that will ultimately have an effect on people's lives.

Victor Papanek是一名在可持续设计领域非常有争议性和影响力的人物。他曾经说过,设计师和创造性工作者有责任并且有能力起通过设计改变世界。同样的,他提到过设计师应当承担起设计对社会和生态环境造成影响的责任。他指出“设计已经成为人类最强而有力改变自身、社会以及环境的手段”。每一个设计项目都会在产品,环境,人机界面,服务中产生或这或那的影响,从而潜移默化地最终改变人们的生活以及生存的世界。

(Source: Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change, Victor Papanek)

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The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the world. Since the Industrial Revolution, design is controlled by management policy of capitalism aiming for profit. 

众所周知,18到19世纪的工业革命时期,农业、生产、开采、运输和科技领域巨大变化对于社会经济和文化产生了深远的影响。自工业革命以来,设计就被利润驱动的管理策略所控制。

2. Problem

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After industrial revolution, design has taken role of a resource that create profits and value-added out of products and service. A great portion of design in modern times occupies a major spot in marketing strategy for successful business, and it is being manufactured only for the wealthy without considering the users who really is in need.  Designers design for a profit and companies exist for a profit.

问题

工业革命以后,设计成为了创造商品和服务附加价值的资源角色。在现代社会中,设计的一大亮点是为创造商业成功而存在的一种市场策略,这就导致了大量设计是为富人而做而非着重考虑是否为真正需要的用户带来帮助和价值。设计师们为了利润而设计。公司们为了商业价值而存在。

3. Insight

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The ultimate goal of design is to create prosperity in human lives. Creating prosperity in the long and short term for human being. It is also applicable for people from different background including disabled, elderly, etc and environments where we live in. Good design begins with the user's need. No design, no matter how beautiful and ingenious, is any good if it doesn't fulfill user's need. Good design is  sustainable and inclusive. 

洞察

设计的终极目标是建立人类生活的繁荣兴旺,同时为人类长期和短期的生存创造繁荣。所以,不论是对于残疾人,老年人,或者是我们身处的环境,设计依然有它存在的责任。好的设计始于用户的需求。若世界没有设计,不论商品有多美丽或者巧妙,都将难以满足用户的真正需要。好的设计应该具有包容性和可持续性。

3.1. Sustainable Design 

可持续性设计

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3.1.1. S-Oil, "HERE" campaign to save oil

S-oil,“这里”省油运动

The challenge: S-Oil wanted to show it had a mission: to save oil. They knew South Korea's capital had some of the highest gasoline consumption in the world. What's more, car use was increasing, petrol costs rising, and parking spaces scarce. Every day, a Seoul driver has to drive around for approximately 500m to find a space. Over a month, this comes to 15km of driving. People were using around a liter of gas just trying to park.

Click to Play S-Oil HERE Campaign Video

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The idea: What if we could tell people there was a parking space right here? With HERE balloons, S-Oil did exactly that. They set up a bright yellow balloon in each space. The balloon falls when a car parks in the space, and rises again when the car leaves. Drivers could see the colourful balloons from far away and spot empty spaces. Quick parking means saving time and saving oil. That means happier drivers and a healthier planet.

Audience Engagement: The campaign certainly helped drivers to save oil. In just one day, 700 cars used 23 liters less oil. Over a whole year, they saved much more. S-Oil engaged with people: now they knew it was a company that cared about saving oil. They even put the balloons on their own gas stations. People now thought about cutting gas costs when they thought about S-Oil.

(Source: http://www.cheil.com/web/?sub=Work&detail=2&pg=Portfolio_view&no=244)

 

 3.1.2. Kenzo, eco-packaging 

Kenzo,生态包装

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Kenzo Parfums received the 2010 Eco-Emballages eco-packaging award for the environmentally-friendly refills created for the iconic FlowerByKenzo fragrance. Awards are given to two companies each year to recognize initiatives to reduce packaging waste. Kenzo Parfums earned praise for two concepts that let consumers keep and use their fragrance bottles longer.

There are two options: a permanent refill fountain at all points of sale, and a refill packet that customers can take home. The minimalist packet is designed simply to hold the fragrance. These refills reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 66% percent compared with the glass bottle, giving Kenzo another opportunity to demonstrate that nature figures at the core of its identity.

(Source: http://www.lvmh.com/lvmh-news/news/kenzo-parfums-wins-2010-eco-packaging-award-for-refills)

3.1.3. FREITAG, recycled individual products 

FREITAG,回收材料产品

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In 1993, the two graphic designers Markus and Daniel Freitag were looking for a functional, water-repellent and robust bag to hold their drawings. Inspired by the multicolored heavy traffic that rumbled through the Zurich transit intersection in front of their flat, they developed a messenger bag from used truck tarpaulins, discarded bicycle inner tubes and car seatbelts. This is how the first FREITAG bags took shape in the living room of their shared apartment – each one recycled, each one a unique item.

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19 CONTAINERS, 26 METERS, The FREITAG Flagshipstore Zurich is completely built from rusty, recycled freight-containers.

(Source: http://www.freitag.ch/media/about/company)

3.1.4. MotoArt: furniture made from vintage airplane parts. 

MotoArt: 由老式飞机部件制作的家具

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With 12,000 airplanes slated to retire by 2020, says the Aircraft Fleet Recycling Association (AFRA), the process of recycling can be quite expensive, with dismantling being a labor-intensive effort that takes up to four weeks to complete. Of course, there's more than one way to recycle a jet, with companies like California-based furniture maker MotoArt (whom we've previously featured for their recycled bomb tables), focusing on creating polished, durable pieces -- all made from salvaged aviation parts.

Using parts like rudders, nacelles and fuselages, MotoArt has been transforming these pieces of what they aptly call "aviation history" into works of functional art for the last 12 years. To get an idea of what it looks like, check out this CNN video offering a glimpse into their creative process -- which sometimes includes over a hundred hours of sanding!

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C-119 Airplane Rudder Desk

Known as “The Flying Boxcar” the C-119 was used as a cargo plane was built between 1947 and 1955, originally replacing the C-82 “Packet”.  Deployed during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the C-119 began as a troop and cargo hauler, it was later fitted with weapons of war. The AC-119G “Shadow” sported infra- red instrumentation, armor plating, fire launchers and mini-guns. The Shadow was later upgraded to the AC-119K “Stinger” and was outfitted with turbo-jet engines. 

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Radical Engine Piston Lamps

What once torqued the engine of a 1940's Jacobs Radial is now available in desk lamp. Designed with an authentic Jacobs piston and a UL listed LED adjustable gooseneck lamp, this lamp will shine for 100,000 hours without needing to be replaced. Also Available are the Architects Spring Arm Lamps with halogen lighting.

(Source: http://motoart.com/)

3.2. Inclusive Design 

包容性设计

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3.2.1. The Bradley Timepiece by eone: To see and touch. An innovative fashion watch that everyone, including the blind can touch to tell time.

可以同时被“看”和“摸”的手表,一个时尚创新,人人可用(包括视障者),告知时间的手表

They believe in universal, inclusive design: designing for extremes of ability and disability to create superior products and services. The Bradley was in this way with equal consideration for both sighted and visually impaired users giving it unique function and versatility. Universal design (often inclusive design) refers to broad-spectrum ideas meant to produce buildings, products and environments that are inherently accessible to older people, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities. Inclusive design refers to broad-spectrum ideas meant. Universal design, often inclusive design, p

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timepiece

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 Telling time shouldn't require vision. The Bradley Timepiece is designed for everyone. Timepiece allows you to check the time in a dark movie theatre without having to illuminate your smartphone. Created in collaboration with product designers, engineers, and people with vision loss, The bradley changes the way we interact with our timepieces. The story of The Bradley Timepiece starts with really simple question: what time is it? The inquiry came from a blind student seated next to Kim during a graduate course at the school. Kim's friend wore a wrist watch that spoke the time aloud at the press of a button, but he felt that using the audible feature in public was disruptive and, frankly, embarrassing.

"When you include the extremes of everybody, that is to say differently abled people of all sorts, then you produce things that are better for all of us."  - MICHAEL WOLF (Wolff Olins)

(Reference: http://www.eone-time.com)

3.2.2. Braun Bell Concept Mug for Blind by Sang-hoon Lee & Yong-bum Lim: No More Overspills Even If You Are Blind - Braun Bell Concept Mug for Blind

为了Sang-hoo Lee和Yong-bum Lim设计的即使是视障者使用也不会满到溢出水的杯子,Braun Bell

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You would never think how many daily tasks become difficult for a blind person. The Braun Bell concept mug is an idea that assists a blind person with pouring a cup of tea or coffee (or any drink, for that matter). The Braun Bell concept mug helps keep track of how much liquid is in the cup using sensor technology. You simply hold down the desired amount of liquid you want using the Braille buttons on the handle, and the cup will notify you (voice speaker) when the liquid has reached that point.

(Source: http://www.trendhunter.com/trends/braun-bell-concept-mug)

 3.2.3.  Can Good Graphic Design Help The Homeless?

更美的设计能帮助流浪者么?

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A new project in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, is trying to find out. A collaboration between artist Kenji Nakayama and Chirstopher Hope, the Signs for the Homeless project exchanges handwritten panhandling signs for colorfully illustrated, eye-catching recreations that aim to give the homeless a power that most of us take for granted: The power to be noticed.Many homeless signs don’t ask for money or food at all. Instead, they are works of self-expression: Statements by a human being about the world they live in. Hope points out, many homeless signs don’t ask for money or food at all. Instead, they are works of self-expression: Statements by a human being about the world they live in.  "Many are not using their signs to make money at all. They’re using them as a voice, to reach out." Hope says good design helps you see the world in a different way. Design is a powerful force that can help overpower people’s preconceptions and attract us to the very things we were once repelled by. Good design can’t in itself help the lives of the homeless, but it can help give the homeless back their voice and humanity.

(Source: http://www.fastcodesign.com/1673225/can-good-graphic-design-help-the-homeless#1)

3.2.4. Blind Adpater by Ching-Tzu Tsai & Xien-An Chen: Blind Adapter - Magnetic Adapter for Sockets

盲人易用的磁力吸式插头——Blind Adpater, Ching-Tzu Tsai & Xien-An Chen

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The extension is designed to fit with existing electrical outlets and has an annular magnetic electrode so that the plug stays fixed onto the socket. Convenient Braille tags allow one to identify the appliance being plugged in, just to be double sure! Blind Adapter is a 2014 iF Design Concept entry.

(Source: http://www.yankodesign.com/2014/04/02/another-adapter-for-the-blind)

3.2.5. Feelor colored pencils

可感知颜色的铅笔

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This is intended for preschoolers with vision disabilities, but we can't see why they wouldn't work for sighted children, too. The comfort-grip, refillable pencils are subtly differentiated from one another by an extruded figure -- meant to represent that pencil's color -- on each end. Blind children can learn that the clover shape means green, and that the apple shape means red. Forming associations of abstract concepts like color with real-world examples solidifies the differences between them for children with vision problems, but can also help sighted children learn their RGBs in a new way.

(Source: http://www.yankodesign.com/2009/10/27/when-colors-speak-for-kids)

3.2.6. Design for the other 90%

为另外的90%做设计

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 Lifestraw  (a personal mobile water-purification tool ) by Torben Vestergaard Frandsen
救命稻草,个人移动净水工具
About half of the world's poor suffer from waterborne diseases, and more than 6,000 people, mainly children, die each day by consuming unsafe drinking water. Lifestraw, a personal mobile water-purification tool is designed to run any surface water into drinking water. It has proven to be effective against waterborne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea, and removes particles as small as fifteen microns.
In use in: Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, Uganda

 

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Qdrum by R.J. and J.P.S. Hendrikse 
滚轮式运水桶
Millions around, the world, especially in rural Africa, live kilometers from a reliable source of clean water, leaving them vulnerable to cholera, dysentery, and other waterborne diseases. Water in adequate quantities is too heavy to carry. The Q Drum is a durable container designed to roll easily, and can transport seventy-five liters of clean and potable water. Rolling the water in a cylindrical container, rather than lifting and carrying it, eases the burden of bringing water to those who need it.
In use in: Kenya, Namibia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Angola

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The Bamboo Treadle Pump by Gunnar Barnes of Rangpur/Dinajpur Rural Service and International Development Enterpirses (IDE) Nepal
竹子踏板水泵
The Bamboo Treadle Pump allows poor farmers to access groundwater during the dry season. The treadles and support structure are made of bamboo or other inexpensive, locally available materials. The pump, which consists of two metal cylinders with pistons that are operated by a natural walking motion on two treadles, can be manufactured locally by metalworking shops. Over 1.7 million have been sold in Bangladesh and elsewhere, generating $1.4 billion in net farmer income in Bangladesh alone.
In use in: Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Myanmar, Cambodia, Zambia

(Source: http://www.designother90.org)

 

Conclusion

The author of Design for Social Responsibility states that social responsibility has been a recurring issue in design profession for so many years. Since the 1960s several more or less commercial approaches have evolved. In the 1970s designers were encouraged to abandon 'design for profit' in favour of a more compassionate approach inspired by Victor Papanek. In the 1980s and 1990s profit and ethical issues were no longer considered mutually exclusive and more market-oriented concepts emerged, such as the 'green consumer' and ethical investment. The purchase of socially responsible, 'ethical' products and services has been stimulated by the dissemination of research into sustainability issues in consumer publications. Accessibility and inclusivity have also attracted a great deal of design interest and recently designers have turned to solving social and crime-related problems.

“The designer's job is to imagine the world not how it is, but how it should be.” -  Terence Conran

If we think design as a way to make the world better, it is a lot wider. Design is all about enhancing things and expanding their capability for a better world. Design can bring real changes as all the design decisions have environmental, social and ethical impacts. I believe in the power of inclusive and sustainable design. Thank you for reading.

结论

Design for Social Responsibility(《为社会责任设计》)的作者指出,社会责任已经多年成为在设计行业中反复出现的一个问题。从1960年代开始,或多或少商业方法在进化中。在1970年代,在Victor Papanek的影响下,设计师逐渐开始放弃“为利润设计”的理念,转而使用更富有同情心的方式来设计。在上世纪80和90年代,利润和道德问题不再被认为是互相排斥的,更多市场导向的理念被融合进设计理念中,例如“绿色消费”和“道德投资”概念。消费者更加愿意为社会责任买单,因为“道德”的产品和服务受到舆论对于可持续性问题的正面激励。可达性和包容性,也引起人们极大的兴趣,设计师最近开始更多地转向与解决社会和犯罪相关的问题。

“设计师的工作不是去想象世界怎么样,而是应该怎么样。”——Terence Conran

当我们认为设计是一种让世界变得更美好的途径,那么道路会更加宽阔。设计是应该拥抱事物,并且拓宽它们的能力和表现。设计可以为环境,社会,道德带来真实有效的改变。我始终相信包容性设计和可持续性设计的能量。

谢谢大家的阅读。

<Reference>

参考

1. Victor Papanek, Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change

2. http://www.cheil.com/web/?sub=Work&detail=2&pg=Portfolio_view&no=244

3. http://www.lvmh.com/lvmh-news/news/kenzo-parfums-wins-2010-eco-packaging-award-for-refills

4. http://www.freitag.ch/media/about/company

5. http://motoart.com

6. Hyungsoo Kim, http://www.eone-time.com

7. Sanghoon Lee & Youngbum Lim, http://www.trendhunter.com/trends/braun-bell-concept-mug

8. Kenji Nakayama and Chirstopher Hope, http://www.fastcodesign.com/1673225/can-good-graphic-design-help-the-homeless#1

9. Ching-Tzu Tsai & Xien-An Chen, http://www.yankodesign.com/2014/04/02/another-adapter-for-the-blind

10. http://www.yankodesign.com/2009/10/27/when-colors-speak-for-kids

11. http://www.designother90.org

12. Professor Rachel Cooper, Design for Social Responsibility

翻译:Zoey

译者注:这篇文章是来自ISUX首位韩国籍设计师,所以抱歉作者用英文完成了她的表达。在文章中主要和大家分享一些正能量有胸怀的设计案例,来阐述作为一名设计师,社会责任感是一件很有意义的事情。也真挚地希望大家在工作之余,更多的思考我们做设计时的理念,是否努力在让世界变得更加好一点!

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